Recent commentsIt's me again, Jose. A lot of time has passed since the last time I sent emails. I was busy with a new glider. However it's the same plane, the Hi-Fly, but it has important modifications. One of them is that I put a bigger glow engine a .12 size with throttle control, an all flying tailplane as the original one, and I also installed a vintage fm graupner radio with old varioprop c05 servos. It's about 1.5 kg or 52 Oz. I made the fuel tank with a film canister. I suppose it'll allow me to fly 2 to 3 minutes. Your site is wonderful, with excellent content. I attach the photos of the new model and the transmitter [more pics 014-019].
GJoseRosalesRuiz : Hi-Fly : 24/01/2020
Hi Peter - I tried to reply by email but it keeps bouncing back, so I thought I'd try this way. The fuselage is dimensioned on the plan as 805mm. Hope that helps. Do send us photos of the build!
Mary : Peter : 24/01/2020
Hello Outerzone! A query about one of your new plans, the Peter A1 glider. I can't make out on screen the length of the fuselage. Everything else is OK. If you could supply it from the original I would be most grateful. I intend to build one for the UK's 36in. Hi-Start contests this coming season.
PeterM : Peter : 24/01/2020
Added a couple of nice pics of the finished model, thanks to Bradley Terrell [model photo & more pics 003].
Mary : BDF-1 : 24/01/2020
Absolutely entertaining article written by the author/designer/builder/pilot of this delightful model.
Bernard Odendaal : Fokker DVIII : 24/01/2020
This is myself and my daughter Paloma with my Kwik Fli Mk. III which I built from M.A.N. plans in 1970 [morepics 004]. Naturally, Paloma didn't exist when I built this model and used it to win my first pattern contest here in Bogotá which took place on December 1970. This photo goes back to 1993 when Paloma turned 3 and the Kwik Fli was and still is in top flying condition. It started with an Enya .60II engine and EK Logictrol radio. It now has a Webra Speed .61 and a Futaba equipment. After so many years it has had a couple of recoverings with Monokote, always the same color and trim. One change was the acetate canopy for a carved balsa one. It still flies beautifully and gives me tons of satisfactory flights.
Eduardo : Kwik Fli Mk III : 24/01/2020
That's a beautiful model, Richard. You really should get it finished off and into the air.
SteveWMD : De Havilland Mosquito XVI : 24/01/2020
I see that the Howard Boys Mosquito kitted by Uppingham Models has appeared on Outerzone. It has of course been there all along.... Let me explain. The Boys plan was announced by the Aeromodeller accompanied by a short article in November 1947, priced at 6 shillings but without the customary reduced scale drawing, not exceptional as they never showed the plan for the Moore Typhoon either. And that was it. The only other reference is when P.L. Whittaker published his 'twin' diesel Mosquito he refers to it being a converted rubber model. Then for Christmas 1954 Aeromodeller published their contol line Mosquito, again a Mk XVI. You don't have to look very closely to see that the rib and former spacing is the same as the Boys drawing as are the profiles and sections. Admittedly the 'Aeromodeller Staff' had redrawn the model onto a single sheet but it is the same design.
I have been working on the model in the accompanying photograph [main model pic and more pics 003] for several years but it is built from the Uppingham plan and I was able to take advantage of the perfectly placed former notches on that drawing. Propellers are made by setting plastic blades in a balsa and ply hub but how much easier trimming would be if they were contra rotating like my Lightning.
Richard Falconer : De Havilland Mosquito XVI : 24/01/2020
Concerning the engine being "too far back", the article instructions state that the engine is fitted with a 3/4" prop shaft extension, so I don't think there is any error in the drawing.
Brian Cox : BE2c : 23/01/2020
Hello again, I've also sent a couple of photos of Vic Smeed's Victoria Parker [more pics 006,007], again from your wonderful plan collection. Regards,
Len Bridge : Victoria Parker : 23/01/2020
Hello Outerzone. Have attached a couple of photos of my newly completed Mercury Mistral from your plans [more pics 003,004]. Regards,
Len Bridge : Mistral : 23/01/2020
Looks like a successful attempt to build a lifting body sailplane. Lots of exotic features, should require a fairly high level of craftsmanship.
Martin : Bydule : 23/01/2020
Hi out there, I have currently commenced the build of this model enlarged to 84" span. Just be careful to note that the plan shows the engine too far back which shows the prop will cut off the front of the lower front fairing, obvious? well I did not notice it until the second time I perused the plan.
Second point, judging by the very accurate 3 views I have of this aircraft the tailplane is far to thick, if you are conscious of scale accuracy you may wish to thin down the aerofoil as I have done. Cheers Everybody
Radley : BE2c : 23/01/2020
Hello friends of Outerzone. Thank you very much for providing so many plans of wonderful old-school models. I send you photos [model pic and morepics 003-006] of my BANANA FRITTER converted to RC and ENLARGED 70%. I already built the original rubber model and for its excellent performance I decided to build it in a larger version, with electric motor and radio control equipment. I hope you like it.
Andres Buljevic : Banana Fritter : 22/01/2020
Added lovely pic of the finished model, thanks to AlphaWhisky [model photo].
Mary : Soubrette : 20/01/2020
Super photos of the completed model are thanks to Karsten [model photo & more pics 003-005].
Mary : Tiger Moth : 20/01/2020
Additional pics thanks to Karsten [more pics 003, 004].
Mary : Bristol Blenheim : 20/01/2020
Here are a few photos [more pics 006-011]. I'm using a Turnigy 32 electric for power instead of gas. Hope it has enough power.
WayneMeyer : AT-6 SNJ : 20/01/2020
Attached some shots of my own Crusader, built from Mercury kit plans and converted to R/C [more pics 004-006].
RFJ : Crusader : 20/01/2020
Doh. My mistake. I was reading the continental style figure '1' as a '7', so the correct wingspan is 2100 mm. That's 82.6 inches. Thanks to Harry Kirkland for checking this.
SteveWMD : Der Kleine UHU Big : 20/01/2020
Got it, thanks. Have set the wingspan, and tagged this one as RC now.
SteveWMD : Der Kleine UHU Big : 19/01/2020
Wing Span: 2700 mm =107.3"
Relay in vertical fin so like early R/C pulse control.
Gene Rock : Der Kleine UHU Big : 19/01/2020
I'll go out on a limb and call this 'fantasy scale'. As this name didn't ring any bell, I endeavoured in a chase for the golden egg laying wild goose. I couldn't find any airplane of that name, hence my fantasy scale designation. This is no demeaning, as this plan is beautifully drafted, with as much care as a 'proper' scale plan.
The Bluebird name was instead splendidly borne by the record breaking cars and boats by the Campbells, Malcolm and Donald, father and son - these might have served as inspiration.
But I went further out on the limb, pulled by the alternate name the Scarlet Tanager. I'll say no more, look into Audubon.org and look up the Bluebird and the stunningly beautiful S.T. Never better inspiration than this!
Miguel : Bluebird Racer : 18/01/2020
Great article, sharp as a dagger! Mr Heese in the warpath ought to have been an Olympic sight :-)
Nothing wrong with the model, it has all the looks for a great flyer. Thank you to Pikpak for his bringing this, and thank you to the Unknown Editor who restored this plan from the 60 year old horror in pic 006!
Miguel : Zeus : 17/01/2020
Thank you to PikPak for this really most substantial donation to OZ (for me at least). Such a nice pack which really made my day. And a 100% thumbs up for the lines about this most anoying ebay problem!
Hubert : Zeus : 17/01/2020
There was indeed a Yak-25 in 1947 with straight wings but the prototype died an early death - It's type designation was sponged off, to be resurrected a few years later with the two-engine Yak-25 family which did enjoy long service. Still in the close post-war period there were quite a few others with this configuration, that is the pilot riding the engine and the tail at the end of a pylon. These would be the MiG-9 , Yak-15, -17 & -23 and more and there was of course the SAAB 29 'Barrel' but Bjorn wouldn't confuse this one!
This was another Dark Age in aircraft recognition, with the Russkies doing their annual 'Farnborough' at Domodedovo airport - or was it Tushino? - where they showed the darnedest airplanes and named them what they wanted. for the benefit of maskirovka and the despair of observers like the great Bill Gunston who chased his own tail trying to make sense of this mess. To this add the fantasy of the press like Popular Mechanics and others of the same ilk.
For myself I find the the Ta 183 an unlikely candidate being so obscure. I guess the first time I heard of it was through the Luftwaffe'46 tribe. All these types I quoted had the stabilizer at mid-fin, the only ones with the T-tail were the 183 and the Pulqui II mentioned above which were closely related. I guess we'll never know, at least I won't :-)
Miguel : Yak 25 : 16/01/2020
It looks like the 1953 model was based on the 1952 3-view from Björn Karlström, who was highly respected for his aviation drawings at the time [more pics 003].
Chris Pinn : Yak 25 : 16/01/2020
Hello Outerzone Team, I send you pictures [more pics 004-006] of my QB 15H II (1983) and also the Japanese original manual which was included in my kit... Greetings from Switzerland,
René Walther : QB 15H II : 15/01/2020
Here are the Wildcat pictures, attached [model pic and 004].
Neil Alleyn : Wildcat : 15/01/2020
hi this is the same as the DMI Prinz found here on outerzone
joost : Prinz : 15/01/2020
Hi there, I saw the photos and article on the Schoolyard Special and thought that I must share my photos with you [more pics 008-010]. In 2005 I was once paging through one of my dad’s old flying magazines from the '70s and happened to spot the plan and we decided to build it!! We converted all the measurements from imperial to metric and then drew the necessary templates.
We cut the wing manually from foam, fitted a wooden former governing the dihedral and then laminated the foam with balsa sheets. We then applied a mesh on to the mid section of the wing and coated it with a resin. I have always enjoyed aerobatics so we decided to fit ailerons and use less of a dihedral in the wing. The fuselage is made of balsa wood. I covered the whole aircraft in Solarfilm and used a vinyl self-adhesive for the decals. We were originally going to fit an 0.49 but decided to rather use a brushless motor, powered by an 11.1V, 1300mAh 3S Lipo.
As can be seen on the attached photos, I cut vents in the top flap as well as the underside of the fuselage in order to create a cooling effect for the speed controller and the LiPo. This was necessary because after the 3rd flight the speed controller had over heated and sounded an alarm. Fortunately it never burnt out.
I really enjoy flying the plane and it was a nice little project to build from scratch. As can be seen on the attached, I have taken some nice photos at our flying club in Cape Town, South Africa. Our club is Cape Radio Flyers (CRF), the oldest model flying club in South Africa.
PeterG : Schoolyard Special : 14/01/2020
Here's my version of the Dwarf for CO2. I used a Modela 0.27 engine and mounted further forward than on the plan and it balanced perfectly with no added weight. It has a rocket climb. Great little plane [more pics 007].
Stephen Corfield : Dwarf : 14/01/2020
Hi Mary, Hatchetman oz1809 which I built last year [more pics 003].
Simon Dixon : Hatchetman : 14/01/2020
Ah, I see now. Thanks Michael. The original article we have here is actually complete, what you have here is the later 2002 RCM "in detail" review of the Top Flite kit, as opposed to the RCM plan. But that is indeed an excellent and useful article. Have added that too now, as a supplement file. Thanks again.
SteveWMD : Focke-Wulf Fw 190 D-9 : 14/01/2020
A caution on this one. In starting the build, I noticed that the parts sheet is a slightly different than the plan sheet. You can work this out by measuring a rib, for example, on the parts sheet and the plan sheet and doing a ratio when printing out one to match the other. My pdf reader/printer allows a pergentage zoom setting so the one can essentially change the scale of the drawing.
MrT : Grumman Hellcat F6G-3 : 14/01/2020
Added 2 pics of his Honey Bee model, thanks to Pete Foley [more pics 003, 004].
Mary : Feather Plane Honey Bee : 13/01/2020
I still have my Charter purchased from SMC in 1988. Despite the fact that plan (mine also) shows the wings built from ribs and spars, my kit came with preformed sheeted foam wings.
She has flied with an OS25 and an OS46 but now is flying with an OS30 R/C all of them contemporary with the plane.
paquo : Charter : 13/01/2020
Ahem. I was wondering who would spot that first. Just a test. Nothing to see here :)
SteveWMD : Comet Firefly : 13/01/2020
Who is minding the store? I see errors.
Gene : Comet Firefly : 12/01/2020
Aha, got it. Ok, that's the wrong thumbnail image. My mistake. Is fixed now. Hit refresh.
SteveWMD : Comet Firefly : 12/01/2020
Thumbnail shows plan for Loire 46! Not sure why, it was correct last time I looked at it.
Mhodgson : Comet Firefly : 12/01/2020
SteveWMD : Comet Firefly : 12/01/2020
Hello Outerzone Team, Here are a few pictures [more pics 006-012] of both my Robbe Rasant's. Original version with OS Max 25F SR Engine (1984) and the new Robbe E-Version with AXI 2820/10V2 4S/3300 (2019). Both models were built by myself, but there are almost 35 years in between ;-)
In addition, there is also a picture/scan of the Rasant page from the original Robbe 1983 Catalog [main model pic].
Greetings from Switzerland, René
RenéWalther : Rasant : 12/01/2020
plan and photos seem different
Mike : Comet Firefly : 12/01/2020
A couple of people have been in touch to say that pages 2 & 5 of the article are blurry & unreadable. Does anyone have an original they could scan & share with us? Thanks :-)
Mary : Nieuport Monoplane : 12/01/2020
There are a couple of errors on the drawing.
1) The foam core root and tip profiles are the same size as the balsa rib profiles with balsa sheeting applied. The foam core root and tip profiles should be narrower.
2) The stab profile shown on the fuselage tail section is full section at the center. I have a pdf with profile at the fuselage sides.
Jim : Hawk : 12/01/2020
I think this one is going to be a good flyer!
Eflyer7 : Comet Firefly : 12/01/2020
Happy New Year, I saw this listed in the Outer Zone today. I finished this model last year [main model pic]. Just have to fly it.
JimPurcha : Hawk : 12/01/2020
I remember mine. I did so many "figure 9's" with it the center of the wing was solid 5-minute epoxy.
Ran a Johnson Combat Special with a 7-9 prop as a rat racer.
John : Ringmaster S-1 : 12/01/2020
I flew there in 1975. Had the same plane. polish falcon on the wing.
richard mcmurray : Wanderer 99 : 11/01/2020
I wonder if anyone has a hard copy of the recently added instruction manual? A high-res scan of page six would provide all the parts patterns...
RMC : Mirage 550 : 10/01/2020
I built an electrified Goldberg Jr. Satan for the SFV buildoff. Here are the Pics [more pics 006, 007] and a Video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nXtod9Xo108&feature=youtu.be
SebastianKunzke : Jr Satan : 10/01/2020
The East German glider "Pionier" was one of the standard beginner's model airplanes for kids in workgroups of the organization "GST" and must have been built in the tenthousands. I am sure there will be many happy faces and memories when seeing this plan.
SebastianKunzke : Pionier : 10/01/2020
Corsair glider: This is one of those contest models which is somehow more than the sum of its parts -- a magnificent all-weather performer that saw off many more sophisticated designs its day. Scaled down, it is now an ideal choice for the popular 36in Hi-Start. (bungee) class.
PMEpsom : Corsair : 10/01/2020
Hello All - if anyone has even an approximate wood list for the Danish HM-II, and is willing to share it, would be much appreciated. Living in France I will need to get wood shipped in from the UK and do not want to make any errors of omission. Many thanks....Neil
Neil : Danish HM-II : 10/01/2020
Yes. What a strange question, after reading this page, reading these comments, and looking at the photos.
SteveWMD : Fieseler Storch : 10/01/2020
Is the body metal rods?
Pete : Fieseler Storch : 10/01/2020
Hi Mary, Here's another one just finished - Toreador [more pics 006-009].
SimonDixon : Toreador : 09/01/2020
Hello Steve, I built an enlarged 30 in electric R/C version of this model with funtional retractable landing gear [model pic, plus 003]. Build details at https://www.rcgroups.com/forums/showthread.php?2820963
BillGaylord : Bristol 72 : 09/01/2020
I am good friends with Don & Mike. At the time I also scratch built a Big Stick. Unfortunately had a servo strip in the elevator oops crash. Built another and it sat for 20 years in the rafters of my garage all framed up. I finally pulled it down and decided to finish it. Attached are pics with a Zenoah GT80 [more pics 008-011].
IrwinDaniel : Big Stik : 09/01/2020
Thank you Steve, for that correction. I would never of thought that that was actually a "1".
Mark P. : Hymax : 09/01/2020
Hi, I hope you would like to include these pictures of my C-3B, built from the Flyline kit [model pic plus more pics 005,006]. The model has three channel R/C and uses a PAW 1.49 diesel. A lovely model and a joy to build. Flies well on a calm summers day! Terrific website, many thanks,
GarethRichardson : Stearman C-3B : 09/01/2020
Mary, Here is a photo of our Red Raider [more pics 003]. We converted it to electric. Still free flight. Qualifies for electric nostalaga and E-36 events in the US.
TeamWrisley : Red Raider : 09/01/2020
It's hard to read, but I think it says 3-1/2 inch on the left, and 1 inch on the right.
SteveWMD : Hymax : 09/01/2020
A question about dihedral: In the plans on the left side it gives a wing tip dihedral of 3.5" and on the right side it states a "r". What is this "r" value? Thanks.
Mark P : Hymax : 09/01/2020
Bill, there's nothing here to buy. All we have here is PDF downloads, and they are all free. Maybe check through the FAQ page for a quick overview of how this works.
SteveWMD : Lockheed P-38 Lightning : 09/01/2020
Unfortunately the article is incomplete, the last page(s) detailing construction are missing. I built this from a PICA kit years ago and it is so impressive in the air. I regret selling it and would really like to build another.
MichaelW : Focke-Wulf Fw 190 D-9 : 08/01/2020
I would be interested in buying, and would love to build the plane, if it can be converted to electric. Do you have the appropiate conversion drawings, etc?
Bill E : Lockheed P-38 Lightning : 08/01/2020
For those that nit pick, please note this is a 1938 or later Warner powered 24. Earlier models had a smaller fin, a larger main landing gear fairing and often overlooked the rear window sloped the other direction. See oz323.
Thomas Solinski : Fairchild 24 : 08/01/2020
The Ekko III was originally published in Model Airplane News April 1974 issue. It includes better pictures and first rate plan printing. Unfortunately I can't scan the material because my issue has been bounded to other issues of that year and I cannot straight and flatten the pages for good scanning.
Eduardo : Ekko III : 08/01/2020
I remember Andy Coutts from Harare MAC! We were the Phoenix MAC in Redcliff and we used to host the annual fun fli. There were plenty of ugly stiks at thsee contests amongst other great airplanes of all kinds. Really good old days! I remember Andy doing airshows with flying witches, lawnmowers and an iron! Sorry for the nostalgia moment...Andy if you are out there...all the best to you!
Woody Scrooby : Das Ugly Stik : 08/01/2020
Thank you for your pictures, make me want to build one, too.
Hubert : Sport Bipe : 07/01/2020
Some diagonal bracing on the fuselage might be welcome for no great weight penalty, and if possible on the wings as well. The latter would not be so easy, but it might help with warping.
Miguel : Sunspot : 07/01/2020
Has anyone built this plane from this download? Having some issues with the scale and some of the ribs. The plan doesn't have W3 showing, assuming it's W4 without the trim cuts. Lots of callouts W10, W11, etc. without defining them. Having to make lots of assumptions..
Jim : Curtiss JN-4D Jenny : 07/01/2020
Yes, l know Bob Holman, he use to sell a Storch from Dennis Briant from England. This German one has the four pages scaned side by side. The numbers in forms and other parts is traditionaly a German way, it probably has a manual with description. I was checking the scale and it is very good drawn. An excellent plan from Outerzone.
Fabio : Fieseler Fi 156C-1 : 06/01/2020
Bottom right corner of plan at wing tip. 9-1/2 inches at tip. Each side.
Mhodgson : Sunspot : 06/01/2020
I bought this plan about 20 years ago from Bob Holman Plans. It had a translation pamphlet and a 3-view plus a few pictures. The original plans had 4 sheets. This upload only has 2. It was a decent set. Mine got lost in several moves.
T. Moore : Fieseler Fi 156C-1 : 06/01/2020
Unfortunately no indication is provided regarding the amount of outer wing dihedral.
Dieter Prussner : Sunspot : 06/01/2020
Hi Chris Pinn, Long, long time no hear. Can you all imagine my surprise at realising that that is my Uproar in the photographs 004 and 005, and the joy of hearing from an old friend. No, its not a Mk 1 aircraft, its a Mk 2 from the revised plan of 1961, Chris O made some serious changes to the wing and tailplane structures to reduce the warping tendencies of those surfaces, by introducing full depth main spars of balsa sheet. I know this is correct because that tailplane in the photographs is on the wall behind me as I type, it has a full depth spar, not the unwebbed twin spars of the earlier design. So here we are, some 58 or 9 years down the line, I have the two completed fuselage sides for my new Uproar just along side me. My first one was powered by a new Merco 35, with REP 10channel radio, relays and REP servos. It went like a rocket and scared the hell out of me! Chris P. so good to hear from you, take care now. PREW.
Philip R E Williams : Uproar : 05/01/2020
This plan is all we have at the moment. But if anyone can submit the manual, we will happily add it here, of course.
SteveWMD : Fieseler Fi 156C-1 : 05/01/2020
Would it be possible to add the building manual in German? Thank you.
Fabio : Fieseler Fi 156C-1 : 05/01/2020
Of course. The article explains in detail.
SteveWMD : Messerschmitt Me 163b Komet : 05/01/2020
Is the plane sheeted?
pete : Messerschmitt Me 163b Komet : 04/01/2020
A picture of my Cloudcraft Mercury [model photo & morepics 006]. Color was obtained using the pastels on tissue coloring method (https://easybuiltmodels.com/chalk.htm).
JuergMueller : Cloudcraft Mercury : 04/01/2020
I have been experimenting with the pastels on tissue coloring method (https://easybuiltmodels.com/chalk.htm). Here is the result on a Frog Junior sailplane [morepics 0141].
JuergMueller : Junior Sailplane : 04/01/2020
Pics of GB.IX A2 glider [model photo & more pics 005, 006]. Really like the quirky look, T tail and well thought out design.
Simon Dixon : G.B.IX : 04/01/2020
Hi - Pics of Monks' Quickie [more pics 004, 005]. Flies great and had classic lines.
Simon Dixon : Quickie : 04/01/2020
Hi - Pics of Lucifer A2 Glider Oz6297 [more pics 004, 005]. Trimmed very easily and looks great.
Simon Dixon : Lucifer : 04/01/2020
Added nice pics of the completed model, re-sized to 100 cm wingspan, thanks to Vahid Norouzi [more pics 005-008].
Mary : Miles Magister : 04/01/2020
Hi - I've completed some projects from your plans. I'm sending you some pictures. This is the Elder 40 [more pics 004]. I resized it to 100cm wing span!
VahidNorouzi : Elder 40 : 04/01/2020
Added a couple more shots of Vahid Norouzi's lovely Q-Tee [more pics 030, 031].
Mary : Q-Tee : 04/01/2020
Added super photos of a finished build, thanks to Vahid Norouzi [more pics 005-008].
Mary : Pacific Ace : 04/01/2020
I also include some photos of the newly built model (yes, 40 years later I built it again last month!), and photos of the original magazine, found on sale in Ebay [model photo & more pics 003-006].
AtilanoSuarez : Mitsubishi S-00 : 04/01/2020
They are. Like all plans on Outerzone. I wonder if you are confusing the jpg thumbnail image with the actual pdf download. Suggest you read through the FAQ page at https://outerzone.co.uk/faq.asp first of all, then download the pdf.
SteveWMD : Das Ugly Stik : 04/01/2020
Can you make the kit plans for the Jensen Ugly Stik available so that both sheets can be seen and printed?
sbaker : Das Ugly Stik : 03/01/2020
Iman : Top Turkey : 03/01/2020
Mr P, I see you have been loading some quite nice plans lately :-) My sincere thanks!
Miguel : Fairchild 22 : 03/01/2020
I modified this plane using 60" laminar flow foam-core sheet-balsa-covered wing with 600 sq in area [model pic plus more pics 003,004]. Used a Merco .61 glow engine. Flew great!!
SamT : Mistral : 02/01/2020
Bit of lateral thinking, I would look at making the engine cowls heavy. Build them from heavy wood. Cover them in fiberglass. Cast some fake engines with epoxy mixed with metal powder (or get some hollow 3D printed cylinders and fill them).
If you can't move the heavy bits forward then make the forward parts heavier.
Could the battery fit in the wing LE?
Could you lighten the tail?
M Hodgson : Grumman Skyrocket : 02/01/2020
I have the same problem with it.
Paul : Gee Bee Model Z : 02/01/2020
I'm guessing you'll really need the weight up front, as far forward as possible - which will indeed mean using two lipos, one in each nacelle. Can't see any other way, to be honest.
SteveWMD : Grumman Skyrocket : 01/01/2020
I thought I'd try to make an electric conversion but looking the plan over, and having already made several other electric conversions, I'm concerned about battery placement to get the CG correct. In my other conversions I've found that my electric motor(s) end up making the plane quite a bit lighter forward than with gas engines, making the proper CG possible only by having the battery very far foward, much more forward than in the average Lipo electric model. I can see that with the snub-nose there isn't a forward fuselage at all to place a battery, so it will probably need to be placed aft of CG making the need to add lots of lead weight under the wing forward to get the CG correct. As the author wrote, this plane has a fairly heavy wing load already so I hesitate to add the extra weight. The only other option is to split the battery into two packs and place one each under or just behind the motors, something I had to do with a P38 Lightening electric conversion. It worked, but was very cumbersome to set up to say the least. Any comments, suggestions?
Sal : Grumman Skyrocket : 01/01/2020
I submitted the plan originally and have the unassembled kit. The label says "Lazy Bee Float Kit" but has a separate "Also for the Speedy Bee!" No dates shown but the box had the appropriate Trexler wheels and pump.
The length of the main floats die cut side piece is 15.25" and is 2.5" tall. That of the tail float is 7.25" and 1.25" respectively. As printed on the box, "The floats can be built in two widths, (2" or 2.5"), to accomodate the weight of your plane. Heavier planes (electrics, 4-cycles, etc.) should use the 2.5" floats."
Bill Hibbets : Lazy Bee Floats : 01/01/2020
The plans are specific to the standard size lazy bee and so were not meant to be scaled. The width advice was simply for heavy builders.
My suggestion would be to scale the floats proportionally from the plan but I am not experienced in float desgn. Perhaps searching/asking on some floatplane forums would help. www.rcgroups.com has an active one.
M Hodgson : Lazy Bee Floats : 01/01/2020
Hi Guys, Am in Gt Britain and have a Crazy Panda which Was the Large Lazy B equivalent made by World Models a lot of years ago with a 6' wingspan mine is now converted to ailerons as well.
I have seen your pictures and plan for floats and as I fly off water during our summer I would like to build some floats but you havent got any float lengths on the plan you have width but not length. How do you calculate length. Please. Mike C.
S : Lazy Bee Floats : 31/12/2019
Peter D, Amazing story! Yes, I was taken by my father to that very Hobby Shop in downtown San Jose! In '72, we bought a Jetco Thermic 50... I have the BMJR Dakota, will be 3 channel electric - and you just motivated me to build:-)
Eflyer7 : Dakota : 31/12/2019
Hello. I attach three photos of 'The Big Apple" oz 8368 which I completed not too long ago [more pics 003-005]. The plane is a fantastic flier and will easily fly on one motor. Mine has individual aileron servos, the flap with airbrake function, individual throttle servos (shoehorned into the nacelles), electric retracts and is powered by two Evolution .36 glow motors. Regards, Torsten, Cape Town, South Africa.
Torsten : Big Apple : 30/12/2019
Very cool, I am keen to build this model and will be drawing up the plan in the near future, Am in fact considering slight enlargement to 70" for a .30 O.S. 4 Stroke or possibly electric.
Radley Clarke : T-D Coupe : 30/12/2019
That's an interesting point. The short answer is yes, and I have just added that into the body text, thanks. The longer answer is that this is something I'm thinking on at the moment. We want people to be able to find all (scale) plans both ways - first through the original published title that appeared in print, and secondly through the scale 'type' name. It should be equally easy either way.
SteveWMD : Mitsubishi S-00 : 30/12/2019
I think it important to note that the wartime designation "Mitsubishi S-00" was found to be inaccurate after the war. The aircraft was actually designated the Nakajima A6M2-N (Navy Type 2 Interceptor/Fighter-Bomber) and had the Allied code name "Rufe". Modelers seeking this plan might not find it if the Nakajima/Rufe designation were missing.
davidterrell80 : Mitsubishi S-00 : 30/12/2019
I can't remember if I was in Jr. High or High School but somewhere around 1969-1972 (12-14 yrs old ) I built the Dakota from the Veco kit and will never forget the day my dad took us to the Hobby Shop in San Jose, CA on Hillsdale Ave to buy it. The hobby shop had a nicely painted Dakota hanging which I always admired when I rode my bike to the shopping center to 'window shop' ( what happened to all the great stores from back then ) ; it was a kind of metallic copper colored paint with black trim lines going down the fuse. We also bought a Cox tee-dee .020 there to power it. I built it as fast as I could and doped it only with enough clear butyrate to protect the balsa.
After breaking in the .020, we went out to the high school (Leigh) to maiden it ( back when there were no rules about flying model planes ). The beautiful TD .020 with the grey glass-filled 5x4 prop started up and I adjusted the needle valve to 'just a little rich', hand-launched it and apparently everything was trimmed perfectly as it began its tight left-circling climb with that red tank full of Cox 25% (?) Nitro . When the motor finally quit, it must have been about 100-200 feet up there, and startled us by gliding perfectly straight into the (very slight ) wind, right towards the houses south of the field !! My dad piled us in the car and we drove over to where we last saw it heading. What happened next was unbelievable but absolutely true: We drove down one of the streets and found the Dakota had *LANDED IN THE STREET* perfectly!!!! ( Back then there were trees and telephone poles and electrical wires running all through the neighborhoods; how it managed to dodge all of them was beyond me ). There were a few kids running around yelling and pointing at the plane so fortunately not enough time had elapsed for them to 'claim it', lol. I will never forget that Dakota and plan on building an electric version soon either with some plans that I already have or from the BMJR kit.
Peter D : Dakota : 29/12/2019
This plan seems to be missing a significant number of formers as well as all wing ribs.
David : Beechcraft Bonanza : 29/12/2019
I made this thing some time ago [more pics 003]. It flies crazy well! Extra easy to trim too. I think it was mostly because of the wing balsa though. Unusually good for hobby shop balsa.
Henry F. : Bomark : 29/12/2019
I've built and flown several Super Kaos's and the variants like the Ultimate Kaos and Utter Kaos. I have even designed my own variant of the Kaos, the Xtreme Kaos and plans are availabe for free on my website see http://www.jaymc.com/rc/xkaos.htm. The Kaos line of airplanes are some of the best flying planes available, bar none!
Jay McMullan : Super Kaos : 25/12/2019
Take a flashlight with you, Mike! Oopps sorry, I meant Sir Geoffrey...
Merry Christmas! Ho Ho Ho! (well, I already have the white beard, the glasses and the belly ...)
Arn : Blackburn Blackburn : 25/12/2019
Radioman gunner sounds very odd to anyone who is ex-mob - we always called them 'WOp/AG's (Wireless Operator/Air Gunner)
Mark you, I did know a radio ham who flew Lancs and he always referred to himself as 'Driver/Airframe'
Daithi : Blackburn Blackburn : 25/12/2019
Hello! Just a comment that may be of interest: today Les Mureaux, where Ateliers de construction du Nord de la France et des Mureaux (ANF) was located in the 1920s, is the current location of the Arianegroup space launcher factory, which emerged from miscellaneous aerospace companies over the years. The Nord Noratlas (see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nord_Noratlas) was also manufactured there after the war. The grass strip at LMX is also by the way the longest in Europe. Now the Ariane 5 are and future Ariane 6 space launchers will be built there.
Torbjørn : ANF Les Mureaux 115 : 24/12/2019
I love this kind of design a lot. thank you
hi : Blackburn Blackburn : 24/12/2019
Doh! Have fixed this now, thanks.
SteveWMD : Summerwind : 24/12/2019
To obtain a stability coefficient of 10%, CG should be at 37 mm of leading edge. 10% is quite high, don't move the CG further. Add also a little bit of up on the elevons. After the first flights, you can advance by small increments the CG
Victor : Bubbles : 24/12/2019
Probably a .10 engine, not a .01 engine!
Lincoln : Summerwind : 24/12/2019
As both use a symmetrical section (with a little reflex applied by the elevon) then the cg of the bigga bit should be ok. If in doubt go for a forward cg (say 10% of root chord) and work back- in very small increments.
M Hodgson : Bubbles : 23/12/2019
The Bigga Bit seems to use a different, fatter airfoil, so not sure about comparing that to this. But if you superimpose the drawings from the two smaller models onto this one, and then scale them up to match, they both give you the answer that of CG should be (probably) around 39 mm back from the wing LE. I'd be tempted to start a little bit more forward, at first.
SteveWMD : Bubbles : 23/12/2019
Same as Little Tiny Bigga Bit I suppose.
Hubert : Bubbles : 23/12/2019
"... and to this day I still peek under my bed to check if any Blackburn Blackburn is lurking there." - Sir Geoffrey de Havilland
Miguel : Blackburn Blackburn : 23/12/2019
Can any one point the cg
akram : Bubbles : 22/12/2019
I've always been interested in these early control line models as subjects for radio and the Candy has long been a favourite. My first, the red and yellow one in the photos [more pics 003], was built in the nineties and was PAW 19 powered. Great fun but sometimes a bit of a white knuckle ride, particularly when re engined with an Irvine 25. The second, finished with a paint job instead of Solarfilm, devastated by diesel fuel, came out a little heavy. So number 3, the red one in the photos [more pics 004, 005], used the same wing but with the fuselage construction copied from the Chorus Gull (oz11793) (Thank you Brian Peckham), came out much lighter and was finished with Oracover, left over from the Chorus Gull. This model has been flying for the last 6 years(as of 2019) and is a great fun aeroplane. As an exercise I’ve now changed it to electric just to see how it works. The early plans attributed the design to F.B Thomas, Flight Lieutenant. I’m sure he had something to do with the Spitfire because that’s just how it looks in planform in the air.
Roger Smith : Candy II : 22/12/2019
Couldn’t wait to get this plan when it first came out in the late eighties. However, it wasn’t for another 20 years before, on the acquisition of a RCV 58, that I got round to building it. On completion, I wanted to get away from the inevitable white, so on seeing pictures of a beautiful full size red reproduction of a pre War Mew Gull, I decided that that was the way to go [more pics 006, 007]. Finished in red Oracover with gold lettering it flies beautifully and looks stunning in the air. Aerobatic too. Anyone building this model I would recommend cutting the torsion bar length of the U/C by half, piano wire is not what it used to be 30 years ago. You run the risk of the spats puncturing the underside of the wing if you don’t.
Roger Smith : Chorus Gull : 22/12/2019
Thanks Pit, have set the designer as Harold Baggott, now.
SteveWMD : HWB 101 : 22/12/2019
I was struck by the part in the article on carving the propellor where it says 'the blades should then be thinned sufficiently to allow pitch change as power decreases...' - it never really ocurred to me that a balsa prop blade would flex in that way, giving lower pitch at higher rpm.
SteveWMD : Curtiss Robin : 22/12/2019
Definitely pretty enough, Rob :)
Mary : Miss Bikini : 21/12/2019
Thank you! I have to admit that I am pleased with the final result. I had the idea that models covered in orange film are none too pretty, but I think I figured out how to use orange effectively. The magic is in the black stripe. Here's a photo of the plane before I applied the stripe [more pics 008]. The photo is probably not pretty enough for your website, but I thought you might like to see the contrast between it and the final version.
Rob Reynolds : Miss Bikini : 21/12/2019
Gorgeous colours, Rob!
Mary : Miss Bikini : 21/12/2019
Hi John, human error then. In any case it's always best to check dimensions first, OZ are quite careful but an error may always creep in.
Miguel : Das Ugly Stik : 21/12/2019
Hi Reinhard, The Senior Falcon was my first multi RC model way back in 1967. First flight when the Beatles were launching Sgt Peppers Lonely Hearts Club Band. Had a Merco .49 and old, green Micro Avionics RC.
As far as I recall, no Goldberg kit included separate building instructions. He had the good idea of including several small sketches all over the plan clearly explaining the assembly. If your Senior plan shows proportional equipment installation, it means it was perhaps the second or third production run when Goldberg updated several of his models. The original Sr. Falcon had reeds equipment. He also modified the wing structure after some complaints of wing failure. He added to the spars a top and bottom hardwood longeron to strengthen the wing. Goldberg was a real genius and was always ready to listen his customers when they wrote to him with any problems or complains with his designs. We really miss him!!
Merry Christmas, Happy New Year and good luck with your Falcon. Greetings from Colombia.
Eduardo Barriga : Senior Falcon : 21/12/2019
Hello, lately I got a "Senior Falcon" construction kit. Plan balsa and other woodparts ok, but the building instruction is missing ! The plan shows early proportional R/C-equipment...anyone there to help me with a pdf-version ? Thank You.
Reinhard Lehmann : Senior Falcon : 21/12/2019
Hi, sorry for the late reply. My wing came out at 56 inches from wing rib to wing rib. The scaling issue was with the printer who printed out the fuselage to a smaller scale than that of the wing. The PDF here on OZ is fine, just don't use my printer.
John G : Das Ugly Stik : 21/12/2019
Thank you so much for being able to download the plan. I remember getting the plane in 1957 when I was 7 years old and my Dad helping me make it. I am 70 next birthday and just seeing the plan has brought back such a lot of great memories of the plane and of my Dad. Thank you.
Ron_fromUK : Weetabix Wonderplane : 21/12/2019
There is a template showing the angle for the root rib of the outer wing panel, shown on sheet 2 of the plan. It's not annotated in degrees, but that shows the angle.
SteveWMD : Jodel D112/117 : 21/12/2019
How many degrees dihedral wing tips?
BG : Jodel D112/117 : 21/12/2019
Hi Steve and Mary, Pages 2 to 12 of the recently added Part 1 of the article for this plan are unreadable, at least when I download it. Anyone else having the same issue? Best regards,
Skippy : Gee Bee Model Z : 20/12/2019
Thanks. Have set the date on this to 1936, for now. It may be from earlier of course, but 1936 is better than no date at all.
SteveWMD : Lockheed Vega Winnie Mae : 20/12/2019
Thank you Steve!
Miguel : Aero A.10 : 20/12/2019
Thanks, have listed this plan now as from Continental.
SteveWMD : Vought Dive Bomber : 20/12/2019
No, it's a Continental Model Airplane Co. Brooklyn N.Y
kit. Mailed the correct Continental plan.
Pit : Vought Dive Bomber : 20/12/2019
In 1936 Comet Catalog.
Pit : Lockheed Vega Winnie Mae : 20/12/2019
Pardon my ignorance, but can anyone say what this Max Fax thing is, as I see no connection between balsa and tissue with maxillofacial surgery?
Miguel : Aero A.10 : 20/12/2019
Is this a real Comet plan?
LarryR : Vought Dive Bomber : 20/12/2019
Anyone have a date on this, later than a-18 1938 issue?
LarryR : Lockheed Vega Winnie Mae : 20/12/2019
Doh. My mistake. Sorry for the confusion. Have shuffled this entry around, because the previous plan in this slot was a duplicate of Military Aircraft HM-1 (oz11274). Have now replaced that plan with this here previously unlisted Aero A10 plan.
SteveWMD : Aero A.10 : 20/12/2019
This is just for Bill Harris, who was asking for electrification details:
I have a Turnigy 2836/8 1100kv, 1800mA LiPo and a 12x5 folding prop. Hope this helps. Cheers,
Sergio Piraino : Olympic 99 : 19/12/2019
This is my Olympic 99, flying since 1970's and now electrified with a Turnigy 2836/8 1100kv [model pic and more pics 008]. I love it!
Sergio Piraino : Olympic 99 : 19/12/2019
I don't think it's correct to call these planes clones. I'd rather prefer evolution or development in this context, maybe the next logical step. Both Mustfire and especially the Tian-40 had their own, technically different and interesting solutions for certain aspects, things like hinging, balanced rudders, different profiles etc.
Besides that, still today they (Mustfire and Tian-40) are rather pretty and classy planes, not just old ones.
Hubert : Mustfire : 19/12/2019
Hi Mary/Steve, here are some inflight pics from my Amateur, it is a restoration from a 40 year old model [modelpic & more pics 005-007]. Have a nice Christmas,
DoroLoebig : Amateur : 19/12/2019
There must be a place reserved in Heaven for Mr Livesay and all the other members of the same species :-)
Miguel : Time Flies : 19/12/2019
Another Orion (oz927) clone like the Tian 40 (oz11816). Both present at Kenley 1962 FAI Pattern Championship. Orion design was obsolete in 1962 and Kazmirski the original Orions designer flies with the Taurus (oz612).
But clones were still good fliers and little modification are necessary for proportional RC instead of Reeds RC system (differently responsive).
ps Comment valid for Tian 40 (oz11816) too.
pit : Mustfire : 19/12/2019
Thanks for making this plan printable now! It looks like a good little flyer.
Lindsay Pucholt : Comper Swift : 17/12/2019
The plan set itself says there are 6 sheets: ilosc arkusz 6
dave : PZL 37b Los : 17/12/2019
Hi Simon, when I read this comment I supposed it was not to be taken literally, but then I saw the film clip! I had never even heard of anything like that! An empty B707 doing a wobbly roll is one thing, this is an entirely different thing and then in the comments someone said it had gone to 17 consecutive loops! All that at a ridiculous height above ground.
There are pilots and there are pilots, and I got a whole new respect for the Tin Goose!
Miguel : Ford Tri-Motor : 17/12/2019
Hi Ian, measuring on top of the PDF (Adobe Reader has a tool for that) I got a total span of two wing panels plus wing tongue very close to 10", so your 1/6 seems fine. In order to print full size you'd need to use 600% (divide full size 60" by dwg 10", you get 600%). Did you try this 600% already?
The plan will look rather messy, I suppose the usual - and rather heroic - plan cleaners were having a day off :-)
Miguel : Cherpaa : 17/12/2019
Very Pretty- thanks for adding it!
George K Forrpv : Blazer 48 EP : 17/12/2019
Doh, strike that. Turns out we already have it here in the inbox, thanks to theshadow :)
SteveWMD : Nieuport 27 : 16/12/2019
Does anyone out there have the complete article for this one? Would be nice to see the remaining pages. Thanks.
SteveWMD : Nieuport 27 : 16/12/2019
I'm thinking of making the Starter, what motor and prop are shown in the photos?
Mark Primavera : Starter : 16/12/2019
Well spotted. I have flipped the pic around now. You can see in the article file the way they printed it backwards, for reasons unknown (layout prettiness?).
SteveWMD : Westland Widgeon : 16/12/2019
Photo seems to be backwards. Exhaust in the right side not the left and registration looks backwards.
Bink : Westland Widgeon : 16/12/2019
Fair point. Good catch.
SteveWMD : Bede BD-5A : 16/12/2019
Ribs 3,4,5 should be 5,4,3 instead according to size.
PeteF : Bede BD-5A : 16/12/2019
If I'm not mistaken, there used to be a slope glider kit with a solid pine wing! Having seen a slope soaring race on the California coast, I have no doubt this glider would be fine at a good site with a good wind.
LR : P-59A Airacomet : 15/12/2019
I can't get this plan to scale up from the 1/6 shown on the original. Now, there is a very nice photo of a built model looking ready to fly accompanying the plan page, so somebody managed to build this model from a plan. Would the person who built this model please let me know how he/she did it & from which plan. I really want to build this model & I would prefer not to have to draw it up from scratch. Thanks in advance.
Ian Milne : Cherpaa : 15/12/2019
In answer to Dennis Tapsfield's question in the article "whoever heard of a vintage airliner doing aerobatics?", the answer is "lots of airshow audiences". Here's a Ford Trimotor doing just that pre-war https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I6f0tvqtAxQ
Simon Craven : Ford Tri-Motor : 14/12/2019
Chris Golds, another great designer who came up with a new e-EDF plan with its build each and every month, all with a meticulous and effective finish! Terrific work discipline, commitment and knowledge behind each humorous article.
Miguel : Mini Javelin : 14/12/2019
URSA Major 60, Dash 25 and Dash 5, and citation 45 and Chaser missing
Ed hitt : Ursa Major 25 : 14/12/2019
hmmm, sounds like that poster/editor is simply unfamiliar with PSS type models. Weight is not really an issue if say you're flying a PSS model off the Great Orme. You could for instance watch the first 15 seconds of this video, to get some idea https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IfcsQSJPQbI of the lift available. More to the point, I thought all the Jack Lynn Bale plans were for kits with fibreglass moulded fuselages, with no planking?
SteveWMD : P-59A Airacomet : 13/12/2019
Supposedly this is a heavy model for a pure glider according to a poster on Aerofred: "...Construction is built-up balsa to the max, the wings are sheeted with 3/32 balsa, the horizontal is sheeted with 1/16th balsa and the fuselage formers are lite-ply and is planked with 3/32 strips. Building a slope glider that will glide with all of that balsa and plywood could be a real challenge."
Gary Pike : P-59A Airacomet : 13/12/2019
Put a KP01 in one. Super flyer.
Len Bridge : Der Adler : 12/12/2019
A good plan. The plan shows it as sheet 1. Is there a sheet 2?
Peter Carrell : Outlaw : 12/12/2019
Added pics of some lovely work by Bai Xinliang, in China [more pics 012-024].
Mary : Lil Misery : 12/12/2019
Added some nice images of the Taylorcraft, thanks to Bai Xinliang in China [more pics 006-010].
Mary : Taylorcraft : 12/12/2019
It's not the port wing. That is the centreline and the cutout is for the rubber bands.
M Hodgson : Bantam : 12/12/2019
Cutout on centerline for rubber band. Not at the dihedral break. Wing drawing shortened for convenience.
Pit : Bantam : 12/12/2019
Isn't that the location of the centre rib?
Pete : Bantam : 12/12/2019
What is the semi-circular cut out for on the port wing trailing edge at the dihedral break?
Trevor : Bantam : 12/12/2019
Here are some photos of the Miss Bikini I built this summer [more pics 004-007]. Engine is an OS 25 SF.
RobReynolds : Miss Bikini : 11/12/2019
Hi Steve, Great website, thanks! Here are a couple of pictures of my 25L [model pic and 005, 006]. I built it from a kit about 10 years ago. It was an excellent kit and fun to build. It is also a great flying 4 channel model.
DavidLHammond : Barnstormer 25L : 11/12/2019
Here are some aircraft photos made from the drawings from your site [model photo & more pics 003-008]. It's a great honor to be adopted by you. Made with depron and 1s cell power. Best wishes for you from Aiyin, China
Bai Xinliang : Nieuport 17 C-1 : 11/12/2019
The Chacal was designed as an aerobatic trainer; not a basic trainer. Modelhob's basic trainer was the Coyote (better with ailerons).
Antonio : Chacal : 10/12/2019
I've got a vintage Oly99 that I'm getting ready to electrify. What motor/prop/lipo did you use?
Bill Harris : Olympic 99 : 09/12/2019
Hi John, what scaling issues were those? I agree the nominal wingspan is 60" and the plan measures at 62", no big deal for a sport model and an Ugly one at that.
I don't know what the fuselage length is supposed to be, from tip of tail to firewall or to spinner tip so there is a difficulty here, but what I found is that wing chord at root - that is, minus the ailerons chord - measures at 12" on both sheets, I think all is ok. As KLH said above, 100% is ok for both sheets, or you can make it 97% if you want to bring it down from those 62" to 60" but would it be worth it?
Miguel : Das Ugly Stik : 08/12/2019
Hi, any chance this one can be made downloadable? Looks like a great plan!
Lindsay Pucholt : Comper Swift : 07/12/2019
Don't use hardwood pushrods. They vibrate and can be very hard on the servos. I had three servos damaged before I understood what was going on.
Gunnar Hovmark : Das Box Fly 15H : 07/12/2019
Excellent pics, David. Very atmospheric. Many thanks.
SteveWMD : Messerschmitt Me 163b Komet : 06/12/2019
Hi, Please see attached images of the Messerschmitt Me 163b Komet (oz11779) by Keith Humber [more pics 004-006]. Hope that they are of use. Many thanks,
David Wright : Messerschmitt Me 163b Komet : 06/12/2019
Built this model many years ago, at that time I was new to flying wings and deltas, I found out after the test flight that the CofG on the plan was too far forward. The aircraft climbed almost vertically under full power, but when throttled back it went into a vertical dive and could not be recovered. The aircraft fortunately crashed into very soft ground and a friend of mine re-built it and moved the CG back to a more appropriate position. It was fast but flew well. Images will be uploaded to site.
David Wright : Messerschmitt Me 163b Komet : 06/12/2019
Long time dream come true. I have looked for the plans of this superb kit ever since I built a Tern Aero rubber powered model of the ST-A as a kid back in 1980. In my opinion, John Gosney's STA Special is the most beautiful example of an aircraft with outstandingly graceful lines. A true classic. Thank you, folks!
Martin : Ryan STA : 06/12/2019
Thanks, have updated these details now :)
SteveWMD : Ero : 06/12/2019
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